The advantages of the tablet dosage form are:
1. They are unit dosage form and offer the greatest capabilities of all oral dosage form for the greatest dose precision and the least content variability.
2. Cost is lowest of all oral dosage form.
3. Lighter and compact.
4. Easiest and cheapest to package and strip.
5. Easy to swallowing with least tendency for hang‐up.
6. Sustained release product is possible by enteric coating.
7. Objectionable odour and bitter taste can be masked by coating technique.
8. Suitable for large scale production.
9. Greatest chemical and microbial stability over all oral dosage form.
10. Product identification is easy and rapid requiring no additional steps when employing an embossed and/or monogrammed punch face.
Disadvantages of tablet dosage form are:
1. Difficult to swallow in case of children and unconscious patients.
2. Some drugs resist compression into dense compacts, owing to amorphous nature, low density character.
3. Drugs with poor wetting, slow dissolution properties, optimum absorption high in GIT may be difficult to formulate or manufacture as a tablet that will still provide adequate or full drug bioavailability.
4. Bitter testing drugs, drugs with an objectionable odor or drugs that are sensitive to oxygen may require encapsulation or coating. In such cases, capsule may offer the best and lowest cost.
They can be divided in to desired dosage strength without process or formulation changes.
When pellets containing the active ingredient are in the form of suspension, capsules, or disintegrating tablets, they offer significant therapeutic advantages over single unit dosage forms.
They can also be blended to deliver incompatible bioactive agents.
They can also be used to provide different release profile at the same or different sites in the gastrointestinal tract.
Pellets offer high degree of flexibility in the design and development of oral dosage form like suspension,sachet, tablet and capsule.
Pellets disperse freely in gastro intestinal tract (GIT), maximize drug absorption, and minimize local irritation of the mucosa by certain irritant drugs.
Improved flow characteristics: Spheres have excellent flow properties, which can be used in automated processes or in processes where exact dosing is required, e.g. tableting, moulding operations, capsule filling, and packaging.
Coating: Coating of granules is often applied for stabilizing active ingredients in the granule or to control the release of these active ingredients. Typical applications in the pharmaceutical industry are the controlled release medicines. The easiest shape to coat is the sphere due to the absence of edges. It is also the most economical one to coat as no extra coating material is required to fill irregularities in the surface of the granules.
Packing of beds and columns: In certain processes, porous beds or columns are used as chemical reactors. Spherical particles allow the reproduction of beds withalways the same void volume, surface area and permeability. Calculations and predictions of the process characteristics also become easier when round particles are used as many equations are based on flows around symmetrical bodies.
Density increase: Both the true and the bulk density of granules are increased by spheronising. This can improve the process and the packaging.
Marketing: For consumer products, spheronising is sometimes only applied for improved product appearance and marketing reasons.
Hardness and friability: Hardness and friability depend on the internal cohesive forces and surface characteristics. Spheronization increases the hardness and reduces the friability of granules. This will reduce the amount of fines generated during handling or transportation.
Scientists are studying omega-3s to understand how they affect health. People who eat fish and other seafood have a lower risk of several chronic diseases. But it is not clear whether these health benefits come from simply eating these foods or from the omega-3s in these foods. Here are some examples ofwhat the research has shown.
Many studies show that eating fatty fish and other types of seafood as part of a healthy eating pattern helps keep your heart healthy and helps protect you from some heart problems. Getting more EPA and DHA from foods or dietary supplements lowers triglyceride levels, for example.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends eating one to two servings of seafood per week to reduce your risk of some heart problems, especially if you consume the seafood in place of less healthy foods. For people with heart disease,the AHA recommends consuming about 1 g per day EPA plus DHA, preferably from oily fish, but supplements are an option under the guidance ofa healthcare provider. The AHA does not recommend omega-3 supplements for people who do not have a high risk of cardiovascular disease.
Children are growing and need more nutrients per kilogram of body weight than adults, but they also have smaller stomachs, which can lead to high demand for nutrients and insufficient intake. At the same time, children are also more prone to picky and fussy eaters and are more prone to nutritional imbalance, so Dietary Supplement is an effective way to regulate their diet. Here are some answers.
Here is the content list:
l Dietary Supplement should not be taken blindly, as it is not a substitute for medication.
l Dietary supplements should not be used as a substitute for daily diet either.
Choose Health food according to its ingredients; follow the label instructions. Do not take it at the same time as similar nutrient supplements to avoid overdose. It is also wrong to forget to take it today and take a double dose tomorrow. Dietary supplements or healthy food should not be taken as a panacea for all diseases. It is not a substitute for medication in the prevention and treatment of disease.
First of all, you should eat a balanced diet and get the necessary nutrients from a balanced diet. Under normal circumstances, if you eat a well-balanced and well-absorbed diet, you will not be deficient in any nutrients and you certainly do not need to take supplements. Some people should take appropriate supplements if for some reason they are poorly absorbed or have increased nutrient requirements. Breastfeeding should be preferred for infants, but vitamin D preparations can be added as appropriate, as breast milk is relatively low in vitamin D. When breastfeeding is not possible for specific reasons, infant formula should be the mainstay, with a gradual transition to a more varied diet; health food is not recommended for infants under 3 years of age. If Dietary Supplement is to be consumed, care should be taken to check the contents of the label under "Unsuitable Groups" and "Precautions".
Children and adolescents should choose Hard capsules based on a balanced diet, adequate exercise, and sufficient sleep, with priority given to essential and easily deficient nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. For children with a poor appetite, anorexia, growth retardation, short stature, or susceptibility to infections, zinc-rich foods or Dietary Supplements can be used in moderation; for children who do not like to eat vegetables, Dietary Supplement with vitamin C can be used. Ingredients such as deep-sea fish oil, algal oil docosahexaenoic acid, and phosphatidylserine. Or ingredients that can protect the eyes and relieve visual fatigue, such as lingonberry extract, lutein, beta-carotene, etc.
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Dietary Supplement products have a crucial impact on our lives, especially in the medical and food industries. Since Dietary Supplement is so important, let's take a look at the differences between Chinese and foreign Hard capsules products and their outlook. Here are some answers.
Here is the content list:
l The differences between Chinese and foreign Dietary Supplements.
l Prospective analysis of Dietary Supplement.
Firstly, Dietary Supplement has not yet become a legal definition in China, whereas it is a legal concept in the USA. Secondly, Dietary Supplement in China is a product set that straddles health food and general food, while Dietary Supplement in the United States is the third category of product that is different from general food and medicine. Thirdly, the ingredients of Dietary Supplement in China must be essential nutrients or biologically active substances with relatively clear constitutive relationships, whereas Dietary Supplement in the US does not have such a definition. Fourthly, the purpose of the Dietary Supplement in China is to improve the health of the body and reduce the risk of disease, whereas the purpose of Dietary Supplement in the USA is to supplement dietary ingredients. Fifthly, Health food in China has the status of healthy food and therefore can claim to assist in lowering blood lipids and eliminating melasma, while Dietary Supplements in the US cannot make such claims.
The most important uncertainties in the hazard characterization of Dietary Supplement presented by the US National Research Council arise from the following issues: firstly, if animal information is used, which toxicity endpoints should be considered, and which indicators of representation should be used. Secondly, what are the differences in bioavailability and dose-response relationships between animals and humans? Thirdly, if human information is used, what are the damaging effects of use, and what are the differences between dose-response relationships. Fourth, how information on subchronic exposures can be used to estimate the risk of lifetime exposure. Fifth, how information on non-dietary route exposures is used.
The information used to determine human effect levels for the Dietary Supplement is inadequate and we should focus on using appropriate techniques to better identify and quantify these parameters, such as the use of appropriate and sensitive exposure/effect biomarkers. In addition, ULs for most nutrients are formulated in terms of body weight, whereas RDAs can be expressed in terms of energy intake or unsaturated lipid intake, which raises the question of which indicator to use. The toxic effects of nutrient requirements and excesses vary according to the life cycle, for example during pregnancy.
Information on nutrient interactions and the different exposure settings of individuals has led to the recognition that for some Dietary Supplements a single NOAEL cannot be used alone and that further understanding of population differences in nutrient interactions may be useful in conducting risk assessments and determining appropriate ULs.
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Dietary Supplement contains only dietary ingredients that are present in the food supply. And the food has not been chemically altered. Chemical alterations are changes in the molecular structure or composition of the ingredients through hydrolysis, distillation, altered production, or fermentation conditions. For example, the use of media containing high levels of sodium selenite can germinate garlic and fermented yeast can produce high levels of organoselenium compounds. Next, we take a look at the summary of the use of Dietary Supplement and their safety profile. Here are some answers.
Here is the content list:
l Summary of the use of Dietary Supplement.
l Demonstrate the safety of Dietary Supplements, otherwise, they will be considered adulterated products.
To a certain extent, the use of Health food has become increasingly common and has influenced the nutritional status of populations. Therefore, the interference of Dietary Supplements should be taken into account when conducting studies on the health effects of nutrients, the efficacy of drugs, and other health-related studies. The possible confounding effects of other user-related behaviors should also be taken into account when evaluating the effects of Dietary Supplements used. In the absence of data on Dietary Supplement use in developed countries, work should be carried out as soon as possible to identify the problem and consider the influencing factors to develop appropriate intervention strategies in China. In addition, the investigation of Dietary Supplements should pay attention to the unification of concepts and methods to facilitate comparison between studies so as to obtain the maximum value of research.
Those who manufacture or distribute the dietary ingredient or Dietary Supplement should provide the Secretary with information that supports their conclusion that the Dietary Supplement containing the dietary ingredient is reasonably expected to be safe, including any references to published research. In other words, if a dietary ingredient intended for use in a Dietary Supplement is not present in the same chemical form in the food supply, an explanation must be given as to why the new dietary ingredient is considered safe for use under the conditions recommended or suggested by the label. If it is uncertain whether a dietary ingredient is a "new dietary ingredient", a notification may still be submitted. Regardless of whether a premarket notification is required, manufacturers and distributors are responsible for assessing the safety of the dietary ingredient used and must ensure that Vitamins sold or distributed are not adulterated. Sales records, sales contracts, manufacturing records, commercial invoices, magazine advertisements, or sales brochures can all be used as evidence to determine whether a dietary ingredient is new.
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Some of the problems faced by food products can be solved by choosing the right form of Fish oil addition and process to ensure oxidative stability, flavor, and uniformity of Fish oil distribution in the product. There are usually 3 forms to choose from pure Fish oil, emulsion, and microencapsulation, and I will introduce you to each of these below.
Here is the list of contents：
·Pure Fish oil
The direct addition of pure Fish oil is not very widely used in food and is suitable for some bread, pure oil-based products (such as vegetable oil), and other products that do not require high uniformity of dispersion but have high requirements for raw material quality, oxidative stability, and flavor.
1. The quality of Fish oil raw materials directly determines its value and application. High-quality Fish oil not only requires its physical and chemical indicators such as acidity, color, and peroxide value to meet a specific range but more importantly, the content of contaminants in it is strictly controlled.
2. Fish oils are highly susceptible to oxidation and the challenge is to improve their stability. The common methods to maintain the stability of Fish oil include protection from light, heat, low temperature, vacuum or nitrogen storage, etc. The addition of antioxidants is more effective and can achieve effective chelation of metal ions and scavenging of oxygen radicals.
1. The emulsion form allows Fish oil to be evenly dispersed in aqueous food systems, with oil-in-water Fish oil emulsions being more widely used in food systems than water-in-oil types. Several factors can affect the stability of Fish oil emulsions. For example, the DHA in Fish oil emulsions adopts a highly protective conformation at the interface against oxidative attack by free radicals and metal ions.
2. The emulsification process generally involves a homogenization process, where both homogenization pressure and temperature have an impact on stability. The effect of temperature on the oxidative stability of Fish oil emulsions is more complex. Temperature affects the actual composition of the Fish oil interface and it is generally accepted that higher temperatures will accelerate oxidation, but increasing the homogenization temperature within a certain range can change the protein conformation.
1. Fish oil microcapsules are powdered Fish oil products made from Fish oil as a core material, which is encapsulated by a specific process using wall materials. This allows the Fish oil to be isolated from the external environment, delaying oxidation, disguising the fishy smell, and greatly improving dispersibility, providing easy access and stable quality raw materials for Fish oil food production.
2. The traditional process of preparing Fish oil microcapsules is mainly emulsification and spray drying. In the preparation process, it is necessary to choose the appropriate wall-to-core ratio and concentration, to ensure that the embedding effect of the premise takes into account the economy. It is also important to note that the larger the particle size of some microcapsules, the more air that may be encapsulated and the more unstable they are. As market demand increases, several new Fish oil microcapsule processing technologies are emerging.
From the above, we know that the three forms of Fish oil addition have their suitable applications and advantages and disadvantages, but basically, they can meet the application needs of different food systems and obtain a product with nutritional value and stability.
Plant oil is a compound made from unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol chemistry and is the oil obtained from the fruits, seeds, and germ of plants, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, flax oil, and castor oil, rapeseed oil, etc. Plant oil is obtained from oil-rich plant seed kernel as raw material, after a series of pretreatment, and then extracted by mechanical pressing or solvent leaching to obtain crude oil, which is refined. It is effective in providing energy, supplementing nutrition, treating constipation, and enhancing memory.
Here is the content list：
l Provides energy
l Supplements nutrition
l Treats constipation
l Enhances memory
l Prevent diseases
l Nutritional value
Plant oil can provide energy for the body. Plant oil contains protein and carbohydrates, which are good for the health of the body. It is also very healthy to choose plant oil when frying, and it is not easy to cause the body to gain weight.
Plant oil contains a variety of unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, often eat plant oil, you can supplement a variety of nutrients, and eat a healthy body. Plant oil is rich in vitamins A, E, D, and K. They can meet the body's need for vitamins. Vitamin A can prevent night blindness, vitamin E can fight age, vitamin D can prevent rickets, and vitamin K is vital to the blood clotting system. In addition, plant oil is also rich in calcium, iron, potassium, and many other trace elements. Calcium is self-evident to the human body and can prevent osteoporosis, iron can prevent iron deficiency anemia, and potassium can stabilize blood pressure.
Plant oil has a digestive effect, the role of lubrication, eating is often dry and easy to form constipation, heat some plant oil can play the role of lubrication, can effectively treat constipation.
Plant oil contains vitamin E, as well as a certain amount of zinc, choline, and other components, which can help enhance memory, delay the decline of brain function, and effective anti-aging.
Plant oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, which is different from the saturated fatty acids in animal oil. Unsaturated fatty acids will lower fat and cholesterol, which helps prevent high blood cholesterol. By the same token, plant oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which can stabilize blood lipids, soften blood vessels and prevent atherosclerosis.
Plant oil mainly contains vitamin E, vitamin K, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, other minerals, fatty acids, and so on. The fatty acids in plant oil can make the skin moist and shiny. The main components of palm oil and coconut oil in plant oil are saturated fatty acids, which are the same as animal fats, so they are solid at room temperature. Most plant oils, such as peanut oil, safflower oil, mustard seed oil, corn oil, flaxseed oil, nut oil, hemp oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil, are composed primarily of unsaturated fatty acids and are therefore liquid at room temperature. It is recommended to consume those plant oils that are mainly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids. Plant oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids include mustard seed oil, olive oil, and peanut oil. Plant oils that are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids include corn oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower seed oil, and sesame oil, all of which have a unique flavor.
The above is all the explanation of the benefits of plant oils for people in this article, and I hope it can help you to have a deeper understanding of plant oils.